In the international political structure of the Cold War confrontation, Taiwan had become the front line for the United States to contain the expansion of the Communism. From 1951 to 1965, the United States provided a large amount of military, economic, technical, educational and cultural supports to Taiwan, and led the development of Taiwan's modernization after World War Two. The modernity presented in the US aid had become a source of Taiwan's pursuit of modern national and cultural identity. In order to theorize "American aid modernity" as a practical method and reveal Chinese cultural position, early architectural modernists in Taiwan resorted to Chinese traditional culture and philosophy to explain the idea and theory of architectural modernism. However, because the modernity presented in the US aid is highly selective and political, it is highly problematic and controversial to equal it with Western modernity and then interpreted and applied by Chinese traditional philosophy. Nevertheless, the US aid that lasted for 15 years made the "American aid modernity" become the main paradigm for building a powerful modern country. As the result, it formed a unique approach that combined American modernism and Chinese cultural traditions to pursue "modern Chinese identity" in the 1950s and the 1960s in Taiwan.