德國西北紡織工會辦公大樓 Verband der Nordwestdeutschen Textilund Bekleidungsindustrie

德國西北紡織工會辦公大樓

Verband der Nordwestdeutschen Textilund Bekleidungsindustrie

林友寒 × 2BXL | Yu-Han Lin × 2BXL

德國西北紡織工會辦公大樓(Verband der Nordwestdeutschen Textilund Bekleidungsindustrie e.g.)成立於 1902 年。目前該商會組織代表西北德 260 家紡織工業 公司。在二戰結束後,東德的難民帶著紡織的技術逃亡至西德因此魯耳工業區成為德國紡織重鎮。戰後在沒有紡織原料的狀況下,布商們從碎布剩料加工的興起到六十年代後被東亞(台灣)紡織產業的取代,商會是這變遷過程中主導德國紡織發展的關鍵。目前德國紡織產業發展趨勢是以高科技的碳纖維複合材料(carbon fiber)及土工布(geotextile)為主。比如說,空中巴士客機A380 的製造材料有百分之五十是輕、可塑、防火、具結構性的紡織品。

在中國,香港,義大利之後,德國為世界第四大紡織輸出國。在新技術的進步下,商會的必須在明斯特新建總部,以在轉型及承傳的過程中建築一個新的基石。因此,這建築設計必須反映這商會的本質:紡織/布。由於新的商會總部依基地法規,立面材料只可用紅磚。我們面對的挑戰是,如何用紅磚表達布的質感和印象?布的本質在雕塑史上有很多的詮釋:布本質的輕(lightness),編織的紋理(weaving / pattern),因環境影響的波動(undulation),包覆而且反應主體的(enclosing and disclosing)。

比如,Max Klinger 在 1902 年所為維也納展所做的似希臘神話的貝多芬像(Beethoven monument in Leipzig 1902)。祼體的音樂大師的腰部以下被紅色大理石雕出的布非常輕軟的覆蓋。這塊依著重力似乎快要下滑的狀況下被貝多分的膝蓋拉著,在這充滿了寓言的作品中展現出音樂家的自信及自在。紅色大理石雕出的輕,波動,紋理,包覆性離開了寓言,提供了印象的確認。我們希望可以在紅磚的立面上,表達這印象。因為德國綠能環保建築的考量,業主接受建物西南完全不開窗的建議,所以我們將建物量體安排至最長的可能,一面全面開窗面湖,一面則是60 乘 12 米的紅磚牆。

在設計上,我們用布放在 1:50 的模型上,在模擬的過程中,試圖讓布在 60 米的量體兩端拉著,中間稍微落出量體。落在量體的布的波動用黑白撮影記錄後,將黑白的照片分類成七個不同的灰階,然後再將這七個灰階用 Grasshopper 轉成七個不同的磚轉的角度。同時我們要求三家投標的廠商依此設計提供的磚型及施工方式。

得標的廠商 deppe 很清楚了提供一個不需轉磚,不會有結構危險,不會影響絕緣層的做法。其本上是以傳統的施工方式為主 — 垂直向承重的磚牆,加上後結構牆的拉筋水平固定。磚塊在典型的 21 - 11 - 5 的基礎上外,發展成七種不同的變型 — 長方形加不同角度的三角形。在施工方式及預算審核確定後,設計圖寄回台灣,在台灣分公司以 Grasshopper 進行細部設計,轉角方式,磚塊位置及數量都在臺灣完成施工圖說後再寄回德國。施工時德國工作人員再依每一位置的磚型編號疊砌完成。

The North-West German Clothing and Textile Industry Association (Verband der Nordwestdeutschen Textilund Bekleidungsindustrie) was established in 1902.

After World War II, textile merchants in Germany had to utilize scrap fabrics due to the lack of raw materials. In the 1960s, the textile industry in Taiwan rose to overtake the market. The current focus of the German textile industry is on high-tech materials such as carbon fiber and geotextile, and the Association played a critical role throughout this transition. For instance, 50% of the materials used on Airbus A380 are structural, lightweight, flexible and fireproof.

Germany is the 4th biggest exporting textile exporting country in the world. As technology advances, the Association must establish its new headquarters in Neumunster to set the foundation for the transition and the future. Its architectural design must reflect the essence of the Association - textile/fabric. Local regulations require the use of red bricks for the façade. The challenge is how to express the texture and visual qualities of fabrics with red bricks? In the history of sculpture, fabric has been portrayed for its lightness, weaving/pattern, undulation caused by the environment, as well as the enclosing and disclosing of the object.

For example, Max Klinger's Beethoven monument in Leipzig for Vienna Secession Exhibition in 1902 emulates a Greek deity. However, the lightness, undulation, texture and the enclosure of the red marble is a departure from the mythology and reinforces the image. This is the visual quality we would like to express through the red brick façade. To respond to Germany's green building considerations, the client agrees to leave the south and west elevations fenestrated. We therefore maximize the length of the building with extensive glazing facing the lake on one side, and a 60m x 12m red brick wall on the other.

During the design process, we simulated by covering a 1:50 model with fabric, the fabric stretched on both ends over the entire 60 meters with the middle volume slightly revealed. The undulation of the fabric is recorded in black and white and divided into 7 gray scales to rotate the bricks, using Grasshopper, into 7 sets of angles. We also asked the three bidding companies to provide the brick design and construction methods based on this design.

The winning bidder, Deppe, provided an approach that does not require turning the bricks, and thus not posing structural risks or affecting the insulation layer. Conventional construction methods are applied with vertical loadbearing brick walls. The rear structural wall is reinforced horizontally. Based on the typical 21-11-5 brick-laying formation, 7 different patterns are developed with pairing of rectangles with triangles in different angles. Once the construction method and budget are approved, the design drawings are sent to Taiwan where corner treatment, brick position and quantity are be detailed using Grasshopper and finally sent back to Germany. The staff in Germany then laid the bricks according to the serial numbers on them.