On March 15, 1970, the first “World Expo” hosted by an Asian country opened in Suita, Osaka, Japan. This was the second time Japan, as a losing nation of WWII, demonstrated its determination to reconstructing its national state after hosting the Tokyo Olympics in 1964, through which Japan also manifested its intention to reshape the national image and become a modernized country. The “R.O.C. Pavilion” (Chinese Pavilion) in this World Expo also participated under the name that was still recognized as a member state of the United Nations. It was not the first time the China as a state from late Qing Dynasty participated in the world fair first organized in the 19th century as a stand-alone national pavilion, but in the past, it had only focused on exhibits and spatial designs that showcased “traditional Chinese culture,” neglecting the cruel reality of the World Expo’s continued pursuit of modernity. Furthermore, “China” had its share of struggles during this period of time, and the state had been unable to pursue the construction of a new national image. It was not until the Osaka World Expo 1970 that the R.O.C. government considered the real domestic, economic, diplomatic, politic, and trade factors, and invited I. M. Pei to provide guidance to transform the conservative and traditional “palace-style” architectural image of the Chinese Pavilion in the past, designing a Chinese Pavilion that manifested modernity and showing the world the new image of the “Republic of China”, Oct. 1971, the R.O.C.’s UN membership was terminated, and lost the opportunity to participate in future World Expo. However, the architecture completed with Pei’s participation and guidance played an influential role to the temporal background of “R.O.C.” and I. M. Pei’s future architectural works. In addition, the design of the Chinese Pavilion at the Osaka World Expo marked a very important creative turning point for Pei. Unfortunately, as the expo closed and the pavilion removed, there has been a lack of discussion on this important work forgotten by history. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the important architectural design from three perspectives:
1. The Design process of the Chinese Pavilion: 1950-5070 The Significance of Taiwan's Modernity in the Course of National and State Reconstruction;
2. The Development of the Design of the Chinese Pavilion;
3. Temporal Meaning of the Design of the Chinese Pavilion.